1 Genuine feedback would release resources to be used elsewhere。
2 Managers are expected to enable their staff to work effectively.
3 Experts are unlikely to facilitate a move to genuine feedback.
4 There are benefits when methods of evaluating performance have been negotiated.
5 Appraisals tend to focus on the nature of the face-to-face relationship between employees and their line managers.
6 The idea that employees are responsible for what they do seems reasonable.
7 Despite experts’ assertion, management structures prevent genuine feedback
8 An increasing amount of effort is being dedicated to the appraisal process.
Performance appraisal is on the up and up。 It used to represent the one time of year when getting on with the work was put on hold while enormous quantities of management hours were spent in the earnest ritual of rating and ranking performance。 Now the practice is even more frequent。 This of course makes it all the more important how appraisal is conducted。 Human resources professionals claim that managers should strive for objectivity and thus for feedback rather than judgement。 But the simple fact of the matter is that the nature of hierarchy distorts the concept of feedback because performance measure are conceived hierarchically。 Unfortunately, all too many workers suffer from the injustices that this generates。
The notion behind performance appraisal- that workers should be held accountable for their performance-is plausible。 However, the evidence suggests that the premise is wrong。 Contrary to assumptions appraisal is not an effective means of performance improvement- it is judgement imposed rather than feedback, a judgement imposed by the hierarchy。 Useful feedback , on the other hand, would be information that told both the manager and worker how well the work system functioned, and suggested ways to make it better。
Within the production system at the car manufacturer Toyota, there is nothing that is recognizable as performance appraisal. Every operation in the system has an associated measure. The measure has been worked out between the operators and their manager. In every case, the measure is related to the purpose of the work. That measure is the basis of feedback to the manager and worker alike. Toyota’s basic idea is expressed in the axiom “bad news first” . Both managers and workers are psychologically safe in the knowledge that it is the system- not the worker –that is the primary influence on performance. It is management’s responsibility to ensure that the workers operate in a system that facilitates their performance.
In many companies , performance appraisal springs from misguided as assumptions。 To judge achievement, managers use date about each worker’s activity, not an evaluation of the process or system’s achievement of purpose。 The result is that performance appraisal involves managers’ judgement overruling their staff’s, ignoring the true influences on performance。 Thus the appraisal experience becomes a question of pleasing the boss, particularly in meetings, which is psychologically unsafe and socially driven, determining who is “in” and who is “ out”。
When judgement is replaced by feedback in the true sense, organizations will have a lot more time to devote to their customers and their business. No time will be wasted in appraisal . This requires a fundamental shift in the way we think about the organization of performance appraisals, which almost certainly will not be forthcoming from the human resources profession.
第一题，说真正的反馈可以释放用在别处的资源。意思上真正的反馈可以让人腾出精力。答案是E段的第一句：When judgement is replaced by feedback in the true sense, organizations will have a lot more time to devote to their customers and their business。这题的意思还算比较明显，feedback in the true sense，就是genuine feedback，devote to their customers and the business,就是把资源释放在别的地方。
第二题,说经理们是被期望着使员工工作得更有效率。答案是C段的最后一句：It is management’s responsibility to ensure that the workers operate in a system that facilitates their performance。经理们的责任,也就是managers are expected to,有利于他们的表现,就是enable their staff to work effectively。
第三题,说专家不大可能有利于真正反馈的进程。答案是E段的最后一句：which almost certainly will not be forthcoming from the human resources profession。人力资源专家，就是experts。需要理解下这里的forthcoming的含义：willing to divulge information. (人)愿意透露消息的。专家们不愿意透露消息，也就是不能指望专家来facilitate。
第四题，说商讨评估表现的方法是有利的。答案是在C段，有点分散。前面说The measure has been worked out between the operators and their manager。这个措施是在操作者和经理们之间拟定的。between the operators and managers，也就是评估表现的方法是被商讨了的。后面介绍的情况都是这个measure有多么的好：is the basis of feedback。综合起来，就是选项说的，商讨是有好处的。
第五题,说评估倾向聚焦于员工和他们直属经理们之间面对面关系的性质。这个选项可能会弄的人一头雾水,首先得弄明白这里的面对面关系指的是什么。员工和直属经理的关系,就是上下级的关系,过分看重这个关系,那么在评估过程中就会有顾虑,谁还敢揭自己上司的短?所以这个句子的意思是说评估过程中有顾忌,无人敢说真话。答案是D段的这么一句：Thus the appraisal experience becomes a question of pleasing the boss。评估过程成了讨好自己的老板,说的就是这个意思。
第六题,说员工对他们所作负责的想法听起来很合理。答案是B段的第一句：The notion behind performance appraisal- that workers should be held accountable for their performance-is plausible。这里的accountable就是负有责任。Plausible是貌似真实的,也就是seems reasonable。
第七题,说虽然有专家们的主张,管理层的结构阻止了真正的反馈。答案是A段的这么一句：the simple fact of the matter is that the nature of hierarchy distorts the concept of feedback。管理层的机构,就是这句里提到的the nature of hierarchy,等级制的性质。这个单词在BEC阅读里常出现。distort,扭曲,就是选项里的prevent。
第八题，说在评估过程中投入了更多的努力。答案是A段的这么一句，有点隐晦：Now the practice is even more frequent. This of course makes it all the more important how appraisal is conducted.这个句子是紧跟上文的，the practice指的就是appraisal。评估的更频繁，评估是怎么进行的显得更加重要。认为更加重要了(makes it all the more important)，就会投入更多努力了。综合起来，这些的意思就是评估过程投入了更多的努力。不太容易看出来。